The national context (England and Wales, as well as the kingdoms of Scotland and Ireland) frames the definition of Puritans, but was not a self-identification for those Protestants who saw the progress of the Thirty Years' War from 1620 as directly bearing on their denomination, and as a continuation of the religious wars of the previous century, carried on by the English Civil Wars. Finally, many Americans have adopted the Puritan ethics of honesty, responsibility, hard work, and self-control. No one was executed for their religion during the Protectorate. See more. )[112] Following the restoration it was restored as a legal holiday in England in 1660. Bounds were not set on enjoying sexuality within the bounds of marriage, as a gift from God. Puritans agreed with the church's practice of infant baptism. [125] However, Catholics and some others were excluded. The first two of the four Boston martyrs were executed by the Puritans on 27 October 1659, and in memory of this, 27 October is now International Religious Freedom Day to recognise the importance of freedom of religion. Boys' education prepared them for vocations and leadership roles, while girls were educated for domestic and religious purposes. [108][109] Certain holidays were outlawed when Puritans came to power. [92] On a personal level, eschatology was related to sanctification, assurance of salvation, and the conversion experience. The Puritans of the Massachusetts Bay Colony were the most active of the New England persecutors of Quakers, and the persecuting spirit was shared by the Plymouth Colony and the colonies along the Connecticut river. [53], Like the episcopalians, the presbyterians agreed that there should be a national church but one structured on the model of the Church of Scotland. But no one really knew if he or she was saved or damned; Puritans lived in a constant state of spiritual anxiety, searching for signs of God's favor or anger. [53] On these questions, Puritans divided between supporters of episcopal polity, presbyterian polity and congregational polity. [124], The 1653 Instrument of Government guaranteed that in matters of religion "none shall be compelled by penalties or otherwise, but endeavours be used to win them by sound Doctrine and the Example of a good conversation". The Puritans saw God as a strict and awesome father. The paradox created by female inferiority in the public sphere and the spiritual equality of men and women in marriage, then, gave way to the informal authority of women concerning matters of the home and childrearing. Girls carried the additional burden of Eve's corruption and were catechised separately from boys at adolescence. PURITANS. ... What were some things that were illegal according to Puritan law? The Westminster Confession states that the grace of baptism is only effective for those who are among the elect, and its effects lie dormant until one experiences conversion later in life. The Elizabethan Religious Settlement of 1559 established the Church of England as a Protestant church and brought the English Reformation to a close. The elect are those fortunate enough to enjoy eternal life in heaven after death. [109] Early New England laws banning the sale of alcohol to Native Americans were criticised because it was "not fit to deprive Indians of any lawfull comfort aloweth to all men by the use of wine". They also made sure that everyone was educated enough to read and understand the Bible as it was the main source of living their lives and the only source of obtaining God’s forgiveness to overcome the sin. [65], Puritans rejected both Roman Catholic (transubstantiation) and Lutheran (sacramental union) teachings that Christ is physically present in the bread and wine of the Lord's Supper. They could accomplish this through Bible reading, prayer, and doing good works. For Scripture says that faith has saved us. [82] A child could only be redeemed through religious education and obedience. [2] The nature of the movement in England changed radically, although it retained its character for a much longer period in New England. [105] As an example, seven of 10 nucleus members of the Royal Society were Puritans. Puritanism had a historical importance over a period of a century, followed by fifty years of development in New England. These included Arthur Dent's The Plain Man's Pathway to Heaven (1601), Richard Rogers's Seven Treatises (1603), Henry Scudder's Christian's Daily Walk (1627) and Richard Sibbes's The Bruised Reed and Smoking Flax (1630). It changed character and emphasis almost decade by decade over that time. They also believed that each person should have a personal covenant with God. [125] In London, those attending Catholic mass or Anglican holy communion were occasionally arrested but released without charge. This permitted the licensing of Dissenting ministers and the building of chapels. Nevertheless, it preserved certain characteristics of medieval Catholicism, such as cathedrals, church choirs, a formal liturgy contained in the Book of Common Prayer, traditional clerical vestments and episcopal polity. In 1647, the government required all towns with 50 or more households to hire a teacher and towns of 100 or more households to hire a grammar school instructor to prepare promising boys for college. Those who are not destined to be saved, according to the Puritans, would suffer eternal damnation in Hell after death or after God’s judgment on Doomsday, whichever came first. Once you have gotten this far, some students will be wondering (aloud, with any luck) why any sane person would accept the doctrine of predestination. [55] While evangelical views on conversion were heavily influenced by Puritan theology, the Puritans believed that assurance of one's salvation was "rare, late and the fruit of struggle in the experience of believers", whereas evangelicals believed that assurance was normative for all the truly converted. Many Puritans believed the Church of England should follow the example of Reformed churches in other parts of Europe and adopt presbyterian polity, under which government by bishops would be replaced with government by elders. [95][further explanation needed] William Lamont argues that, within the church, the Elizabethan millennial beliefs of John Foxe became sidelined, with Puritans adopting instead the "centrifugal" doctrines of Thomas Brightman, while the Laudians replaced the "centripetal" attitude of Foxe to the "Christian Emperor" by the national and episcopal Church closer to home, with its royal head, as leading the Protestant world iure divino (by divine right). [14] One Puritan settlement in western Massachusetts banished a husband because he refused to fulfill his sexual duties to his wife.[15]. Persecution mounted. William Perkins did so in a sermon an Matthew 6:19-20, in which he listed what Christ did not forbid: . First came the Pilgrims in the 1620s. A major Puritan attack on the theatre was William Prynne's book Histriomastix. a.false b.true 5.According to the Puritans man is born___, a.good b.evil 6. Not only did Puritans believe that everything regarding salvation was in God’s hands, but they also believed that those God chose to be saved would find God’s call irresistible. That century can be broken down into three parts: the generation of John Cotton and Richard Mather, 1630–62 from the founding to the Restoration, years of virtual independence and nearly autonomous development; the generation of Increase Mather, 1662–89 from the Restoration and the Halfway Covenant to the Glorious Revolution, years of struggle with the British crown; and the generation of Cotton Mather, 1689–1728 from the overthrow of Edmund Andros (in which Cotton Mather played a part) and the new charter, mediated by Increase Mather, to the death of Cotton Mather. The initial conflict between Puritans and the authorities included instances of nonconformity such as omitting parts of the liturgy to allow more time for the sermon and singing of metrical psalms. Women and men were equally expected to fulfill marital responsibilities. In the early 20th century, Max Weber argued in The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism that Puritan beliefs in predestination resulted in a Protestant work ethic that created capitalism. Puritans was the name given in the 16th century to the more extreme Protestants within the Church of England who thought the English Reformation had not gone far enough in reforming the doctrines and structure of the church; they wanted to purify their national church by eliminating every shred of Catholic influence. [114], Puritans were opposed to Sunday sport or recreation because these distracted from religious observance of the Sabbath. Some Puritan ideals, including the formal rejection of Roman Catholicism, were incorporated into the doctrines of the Church of England; others were absorbed into the many Protestant denominations that emerged in the late 17th and early 18th centuries in North America and Britain. Exorcist John Darrell was supported by Arthur Hildersham in the case of Thomas Darling. [71] They also supported the idea of having a Book of Common Prayer, but they were against demanding strict conformity or having too much ceremony. Christmas was outlawed in Boston from 1659. In Massachusetts colony, which had some of the most liberal colonial divorce laws, one out of every six divorce petitions was filed on the basis on male impotence. [40][41][42][43], The Puritans also set up a college (Harvard University) only six years after arriving in the United States. American Puritans did not celebrate religious holidays such as Easter or Christmas. [9], "Non-separating Puritans" were dissatisfied with the Reformation of the Church of England but remained within it, advocating for further reform; they disagreed among themselves about how much further reformation was possible or even necessary. The New England Congregationalists were also adamant that they were not separating from the Church of England. Yet, the main complaint Puritans had was the requirement that clergy wear the white surplice and clerical cap. The Puritans and Freedom of Religion. In the 17th century, Sunday worship in the established church took the form of the Morning Prayer service in the Book of Common Prayer. It could not be assumed that baptism produces regeneration. Puritanism grew out of the teachings of John Calvin, and became a movement to reform the Church of England. There was also an optimistic aspect to Puritan millennianism; Puritans anticipated a future worldwide religious revival before the Second Coming of Christ. "The Historic Church: An Orthodox View of Christian History". [6] Originally, Puritan was a pejorative term characterizing certain Protestant groups as extremist. The Puritan emphasis on education led to an American school system whereby everyone is taught reading, writing, and arithmetic. However, some Puritans equated the Church of England with the Roman Catholic Church, and therefore considered it no Christian church at all. Puritans still opposed much of the Roman Catholic summation in the Church of England, notably the Book of Common Prayer but also the use of non-secular vestments (cap and gown) during services, the sign of the Cross in baptism, and kneeling to receive Holy Communion. [53] During the Interregnum, the presbyterians had limited success at reorganizing the Church of England. [48] Covenant theology asserts that when God created Adam and Eve he promised them eternal life in return for perfect obedience; this promise was termed the covenant of works. Puritanism remained the dominant cultural force in that area into t… The Puritans were English Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries who sought to purify the Church of England of Roman Catholic practices, maintaining that the Church of England had not been fully reformed and should become more Protestant. Under the Act of Uniformity 1662, the Church of England was restored to its pre-Civil War constitution with only minor changes, and the Puritans found themselves sidelined. He began by recounting a time almost forty years earlier when a stranger abruptly had stopped him and asked, "Are you saved?" Private baptisms were opposed because Puritans believed that preaching should always accompany sacraments. [83], Like most Christians in the early modern period, Puritans believed in the active existence of the devil and demons as evil forces that could possess and cause harm to men and women. 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